2.46 How did the Church enter the twentieth century?
In the beginning of the twentieth century, the Church flourished greatly in some countries. However, the Church was persecuted in other countries including France, Portugal, Russia, Spain and Mexico.
At the same time the number of priests, brothers, sisters and missionaries grew enormously in certain countries, including the Netherlands and Belgium. They went out into the world, spreading the Gospel. Popes called upon all the faithful to grow in sanctity, for example by receiving Holy Communion more often. During the First World War, the pope worked to bring reconciliation between the warring parties.
Pius X's Pontificate left an indelible mark on the Church's history and was distinguished by a considerable effort for reform that is summed up in his motto: Instaurare Omnia in Christo, "To renew all things in Christ". Indeed, his interventions involved various ecclesiastical contexts. From the outset he devoted himself to reorganizing the Roman Curia… Another important sector was that of the doctrinal formation of the People of God... He himself had compiled a catechism… Pius X paid considerable attention to the reform of the Liturgy and, in particular, of sacred music in order to lead the faithful to a life of more profound prayer and fuller participation in the Sacraments. [Pope Benedict XVI, General Audience, 18 Aug. 2010]