2.2 Paano pinamumunuan ang Simbahan?

The Church today

Ang Simbahan [>2.11] ay pinamumunuan ng Papa (na siya ring obispo ng Roma) kasama ng iba pang mga obispo [>2.21]. Ang Papa ay ang kahalili ni Apostol San Pablo, na siyang pinili ni Hesus [>2.17] na mamuno sa Simbahan. 

Ang ibang mga obispo ay ang mga kahalili ng ibang Apostoles [>2.15]. Pinamumunuan ng isang obispo ang isang diyosesis. Ang bawat diyosesis ay nahahati sa mga parokya, na pinamumunuan ng kura paroko o mga pastor.

Ang Simbahan ay pinamumunuan ng papa at mga obispo, kung saan ang bawat isa sa kanila ay may kani-kanyang diyosesis na nahahati sa mga Parokya na pinamumunuan ng mga kura paroko.
The Wisdom of the Church

Why did Christ institute an ecclesiastical hierarchy?

Christ instituted an ecclesiastical hierarchy with the mission of feeding the people of God in his name and for this purpose gave it authority. The hierarchy is formed of sacred ministers,;bishops, priests, and deacons. Thanks to the sacrament of Orders, bishops and priests act in the exercise of their ministry in the name and person of Christ the Head. Deacons minister to the people of God in the diakonia (service) of word, liturgy, and charity. [CCCC 179]

How is the collegial dimension of Church ministry carried out?

After the example of the twelve Apostles who were chosen and sent out together by Christ, the unity of the Church’s hierarchy is at the service of the communion of all the faithful. Every bishop exercises his ministry as a member of the episcopal college in communion with the pope and shares with him in the care of the universal Church. Priests exercise their ministry in the presbyterate of the local Church in communion with their own bishop and under his direction. [CCCC 180]

Why does ecclesial ministry also have a personal character?

Ecclesial ministry also has a personal character in as much as each minister, in virtue of the sacrament of Holy Orders, is responsible before Christ who called him personally and conferred on him his mission. [CCCC 181]

Bakit hindi isang demokratikong organisasyon ang Simbahan?

Ito ang prinsipyo ng demokrasya: Ang lahat ng kapangyarihan ay nagmumula sa mga tao. Ngunit sa → Simbahan ang lahat ng kapangyarihan ay mula kay Kristo. Kaya mayroong herarkiyang istruktura ang Simbahan. Kasabay nito, binibigyan din siya ni Kristo ng isang istrukturang pang-magkakapatid (collegial structure).

Ang herarkiyang elemento sa → Simbahan ay binubuo nito: na si Kristo mismo ang siyang kumikilos sa kanya kapag ang mga inordenahang ministro ay may ginawa at ibinigay sa pamamagitan ng biyaya ng Diyos, ng anumang hindi nila kayang gawin at ibigay, ibig sabihin, kapag sila ay nagbibigay ng mga → Sakramento bilang kahalili ni Kristo at nagtuturo sa kanyang kapangyarihan. Ang istrukturang pangmagkakapatid sa Simbahan ay binubuo nito: na ipinagkatiwala ni Kristo ang kabuuan ng pananampalataya sa isang komunidad ng labindalawang → Apostol, na ang kanilang mga kahalili ang gumagabay sa Simbahan sa pamumuo ng Santo Papa. Mahalagang nabibilang rito sa kolehiyo ang Konsilyo sa Simbahan. Ngunit sa iba ring mga komite ng Simbahan, sa mga sinodo at konseho, maaaring magbigay bunga ang pagkakaiba-iba ng mga espirituwal na kaloob at pagiging pandaigdigan ng pangkalahatang Simbahan. [Youcat 140]

What is the competence of the college of bishops?

The college of bishops in union with the pope, and never without him, also exercises supreme and full authority over the Church. [CCCC 183]

How do the bishops carry out their mission of teaching?

Since they are authentic witnesses of the apostolic faith and are invested with the authority of Christ, the bishops in union with the pope have the duty of proclaiming the Gospel faithfully and authoritatively to all. By means of a supernatural sense of faith, the people of God unfailingly adhere to the faith under the guidance of the living Magisterium of the Church. [CCCC 184]

When is the infallibility of the Magisterium exercised?

Infallibility is exercised when the Roman Pontiff, in virtue of his office as the Supreme Pastor of the Church, or the College of Bishops, in union with the pope especially when joined together in an Ecumenical Council, proclaim by a definitive act a doctrine pertaining to faith or morals. Infallibility is also exercised when the pope and bishops in their ordinary Magisterium are in agreement in proposing a doctrine as definitive. Every one of the faithful must adhere to such teaching with the obedience of faith. [CCCC 185]

How do bishops exercise their ministry of sanctification?

Bishops sanctify the Church by dispensing the grace of Christ by their ministry of the word and the sacraments, especially the Holy Eucharist, and also by their prayers, their example and their work. [CCCC 186]

How do the bishops exercise their function of governing?

Every bishop, insofar as he is a member of the college of bishops, bears collegially the care for all particular Churches and for the entire Church along with all the other bishops who are united to the pope. A bishop to whom a particular Church has been entrusted governs that Church with the authority of his own sacred power which is ordinary and immediate and exercised in the name of Christ, the Good Shepherd, in communion with the entire Church and under the guidance of the Successor of Peter. [CCCC 187]

Maaari bang kumilos at magturo ang mga obispo laban sa Santo Papa, at maaari bang kumilos at magturo ang Santo Papa laban sa mga obispo?

Hindi maaaring kumilos at magturo ang mga → Obispo laban sa Santo Papa, kundi dapat kasama niya lamang. Ngunit sa malinaw na ilang mga kaso, ang Santo Papa ay maaaring magdesisyon kahit walang pagsang-ayon ng mga obispo.

Totoo na ang → Santo Papa ay nakatali sa pananampalataya ng → Simbahan sa kanyang mga desisyon. Mayroong ganoong bagay tulad ng pangkalahatang kamalayan ng pananampalataya ng Simbahan na pinagagana sa pamamagitan ng Espiritu Santo, alinsunod sa pangunahing pananalig sa mga bagay ng pananampalataya na umiiral sa buong Simbahan, sa madaling salita, ang karaniwang kahulugan ng Simbahan, ibig sabihin, "anuman ang palaging pinaniniwalaan ng lahat, sa lahat ng dako" (Vinzenz von Lérins)." [Youcat 142]

This is what the Church Fathers say

Sundin ang lahat sa obispo tulad ng ginawa ni Jesucristo sa Ama, at mga pari, tulad ng gagawin mo sa mga Apostol. Igalang ang mga diakono tulad ng gagawin mo sa utos ng Diyos [St. Ignatius of Antioch, Letter to the Smyrnaens, Chap 8 (MG 5, 713)]